I am a Canadian who lived and worked in Canberra, the hated capital of Australia (hated by other Australians).
There are a number of similiarities in the two cultures, primarily due to our histories as former British colonies. There are, however, a noteable amount of differences:
Drinking is a more aggressive culture in Australia. While Canadians also enjoy having a good drink, Australians (in my experience, primarily in Queensland) are more aggressive and troublemaking when they drink. I have witnessed drunk fighting in the streets in Brisbane at 2 PM. This therefore leads to a very offensive strategy from bars, who may kick you out of a bar even if you have had only a few drinks. To add to this, bars in Canberra close relatively early.
Workplace is more relaxed than in a Canadian workplace. My boss in Australia was extremely relaxed- as long as work was done, sick days and showing up late (if no commitments were scheduled) were all acceptable practices. This reflects in the takeout industry in Australia- food does not necessarily come quickly, not by Canadian speeds. You can easily wait 10 minutes in a McDonald's drive-thru.
Moving on to food: there will be an extraordinary amount of Asian food at your disposal. Enjoy and try it. Although we have Asian cuisine in Canada, you often have to go to one of the majority metropolitan areas to enjoy the more niche cuisines. Australia, even in Canberra, Malay, Indonesian or Korean cuisine is not impossible to find.
Shopping in Australia is expensive. The dollar is quite high relative to the Canadian one. They do, however, have access to some great swimwear retailers.
Social obligations? Not many. For example, on Christmas, people just tend to have barbecue and hang out. Generally, Australians are a more laidback people.
That's all I have to say about it for now- I could spend days writing about all the differences I noted when living there. But Australia is a great place. I loved living there, and despite some of the issues cited in the other comments, I think you can make it a good place to live if you want to.
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